Moving the tool about in the water also cools it more quickly and makes it harder. Tempering — A piece of steel in this condition is too hard and brittle for ordinary use, and must have this extreme hardness removed to a certain extent, depending upon the use to which the tool is to be put. This is done by reheating and tempering. Reheating the Steel for Tempering — The chief method used in farm practice to reheat the steel is to utilize heat remaining in the tool after hardening.
The lower portion only is cooled in hardening and the heat remaining in the part above is then allowed to work down until the desired temperature is secured at the cutting edge, when the tool is again plunged in water and cooled. Determining Tempering Heat — A piece of polished iron or steel will form a thin scale on the outside that changes in color as the heat is increased. At about degrees F.
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As the heat increases this changes through shades of yellow to brown, which becomes tinged with red, turning into light purple, dark purple, and finally blue. The following table taken from Farm Blacksmithing, by J. Drew, gives the colors indicating the tempering heat for various tools, and the approximate temperature corresponding to the color:. Annealing is the process of softening steel, and is accomplished by heating to the proper hardening heat and cooling very slowly by burying in ashes or some similar heat retainer. It results in a steel of extreme softness, strength and ductility.
After forging, steel should always be annealed before hardening, as it relieves internal stresses in the metal and results in a better tool. Cutting Metal with Chisels — Cutting should be done on the base of anvil horn fig. The face of the anvil is hardened and will injure the chisel if driven against it. The cold chisel should be held securely with the left hand and struck heavy blows. Place the chisel before each blow and nick clear around the iron to be cut off; then bring the nicked portion to the edge of the anvil and break off by a blow from the hammer as shown in figure Keep the cold chisel sharpened with the edge slightly convex to give it strength.
Avoid cutting with the corners of the chisel, to avoid breakage. When making deep cuts a handful of oil-soaked waste into which the chisel can be dipped occasionally will make it cut better. The hot chisel is used on hot metal in practically the same way that the cold chisel is used for cold metal. The metal to be cut should be bright red.
Dip the hot chisel frequently while using it to retain the temper. The hot chisel may be used in connection with the hardie in cutting hot metal, the hardie forming the lower blade of the shears. Avoid hitting the hardie with the hammer; the last blows struck should be overhanging blows. Cutting with the Hack-saw — When using the hacksaw, draw the blade up taut in the frame, avoid twisting or cramping in the cut and use with little pressure to avoid breaking.
For economy in the use of blades use the longest stroke possible, making every tooth in the saw do its full share of cutting fig. Filing — Files are used for leveling and cutting down stock where a degree of accuracy not possible with the cold chisel is required. An assortment of round, square, triangular, and flat files is desirable.
The flat file is the one most used in farm repairs, the size known as inch being the most economical. It should be fitted with a handle permitting it to be grasped firmly. Hold the file steadily and use long strokes fig. It should be lifted on the return stroke. It does no cutting on the return stroke and is dulled by contact with the metal. Care of Files — A satisfactory way of storing is to provide a shelf on which each file has a groove protecting it from dirt, grease, or injury. When a file becomes worn it may be kept for use on soft or dirty metals and a new file secured for the harder work.
Job 1. Building and Maintaining a Fire — A clean, deep fire of coke is necessary for satisfactory forge shop work fig. Job 2. Roof Ladder Iron — This is bolted to the top of a light ladder, permitting it to be pushed up a roof and hooked over the ridge figs. Job 3. Gate Staples — Staples of different shapes are used to support sliding gates and bars.
Where used for bars made from poles, old horse shoes are sometimes pointed and used for staples figs. Job 4. Gate Hinge — A heavy hinge of this character is used on swinging gates and heavy doors. It may be changed in construction adapting it to different conditions figs. If other post is used cut length of horizontal part to fit post. Apply top hinge with pin pointing downward to prevent gate being lifted from hinges by stock.
Lower hinge may be made adjustable, permitting gate to be kept horizontal, by threading entire horizontal length of hinge pin and using two nuts, one on each side of the post. Job 5. Iron Plate for Vise Jaw — The utility of a wood vise is increased by iron jaw linings.
It can then be used for both woodwork and light metal work. Job 6. Rub Iron for Hay Rack — This is fastened to side of rack and prevents wear from wheel when turning figs. Job 7. Hay Rack Clamp Bolt — It is designed to hold cross sills and bed pieces of hay rack together without weakening them by boring holes. In modified form it may be adapted to other similar conditions figs.
Clamp-bolts, U-bolts and other work of this nature are frequently made by shaping first after which they are heated at the top and twisted sufficiently to permit the thread to be cut. They are then reheated and twisted back to place again. Job 8.
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Wagon-box Strap Bolt — It is used to fasten sides of box to bed figs. Job 9. Tail Rod Washer for Wagon-box — It prevents the ring and nut on ends of tail rod from wearing into the wood. Two are required for each rod figs. Job Wagon-box Tail Rod — This is used to hold end gates of wagon-box in place, and to prevent box from spreading figs. Tail Rod Nut — This is used as fastening on tail rod, as it permits loosening or tightening without the use of wrench, and because of its shape does not easily jar off figs.
Wagon-box Rub Iron — Used to protect wagon-box from wear occasioned by contact with front wheels in turning figs. Wagon-box Brace — Used on the side of wagon-box to prevent spreading figs. End Gate Brace — Used to support foot rest on the front end gate of wagon-box figs. Wearing Irons and Brace for Road Drag — Used to hold drag in shape and to protect the scraping and pulverizing edges of the drag fig.
Welded Eye Bolt and Ring for Road Drag — Used in road drag to hold parts together and as a means of attaching the team figs. Range Pole Shoe — Used as a protection for the lower end of range poles figs. Irons for Stitching Horse — Used as a latch, attachment for strap used to close jaws, and fulcrum for treadle on stitching horse figs. Making a Chain Link and Repairing a Chain — A chain link made as described makes a permanent repair for a broken chain fig. Straight Jaw Tongs — Straight jaw tongs are used for handling all common shapes of hot irons while working at the forge and anvil figs.
Cold Chisel — The cold chisel is necessary in farm shop work in making repairs to metal. It is used for cutting cold iron and can be made in various shapes for different purposes.
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The shape shown is the best adapted to general use fig. Log in or Subscribe.
McCormick-Deering No. Factory Colors.
The Soil and Health. Workboat Futures. Homemade Pottery Wheel. Blacksmithing from issue: SFJ Modern farm machinery is largely of iron and steel construction, making an equipment of metal working tools necessary if satisfactory repairs are to be made. Drew, gives the colors indicating the tempering heat for various tools, and the approximate temperature corresponding to the color: Color Temperature F degrees Tools Very pale straw color Stone drills for hard stone.
Yellow Woodworking tools, ordinary stone drills. Problems in Shop Work Job 1. Construction of Fire: Clean out fire pot and blast pipe. Light small handful of shavings and place in fire pot with lighted end down. Select several pieces of coke and place on burning shavings.
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